Glen Speering

Glen is a passionate and committed Sesssional Lecturer in Science, Social Research Methods, and Writing Skills. He is also a freelance researcher and research assistant with several years of experience. His areas of interest are Water Quality Management and Policy, and Housing Policy and Research.

Mar 162015
 
Hepatitis A
Typical of the confusion Australian consumers face

In the wake of the Hepatitis A scandal, which as at this point has infected some 26 people in Victoria, New South Wales, Western Australia, Queensland, South Australia and the ACT. There has been a great deal of debate about food labelling laws, protocols, and food safety.

A potential cause of the outbreak and a potential solution fall within what readers of this blog might be familiar with – water quality and market-based instruments.

At this stage, it looks likely that the source of the infection was and is imported frozen berries from China.

Sufferers of Hepatitis A are likely to suffer gastro-intestinal problems such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and fever and in some cases may suffer acute liver failure.*

Hepatitis A is spread through the “oral – faecal route”. So, there are perhaps two mechanisms for which Hepatitis A can be passed onto another person through ingesting food. One, involves an infected person exhibiting poor hygiene practices (such as not washing hands), and then directly handling the food. The second is contaminated water being used to wash or prepare food.

The outbreak and the poor quality control standards for food production and packaging shouldn’t have come as a surprise. China has had a well documented, if not at times overblown record of food contamination. Ranging from contaminated milk formula, to poisonous pet food, and garlic sprayed with outdated and harmful (to human health) fertilisers and pesticides. Frozen berries were thought to be the cause of Hepatitis A infections in the United States and European Union. These are problems in practices that would not be allowed to occur in countries like Australia.

Calls for better food labelling laws as a result of the Hepatitis A outbreak have been made by consumer groups. It is often a battle for consumers to understand where their food is sourced. Confusing labels such as “Made in Australia from local and imported ingredients” make food labelling meaningless and devalue the system as a whole. The federal government initially rejected such calls and deemed them an unnecessary regulation. However, it appears that a proposal is going to be made to cabinet by the end of March.

I support such a move, but I argue that it is positive and productive regulation. As opposed to restrictive regulation. Companies that import food products would be well aware of their supply chain – meaning a low cost of implementation for the companies involved.

The benefits are obvious. Consumers would be able to make better choices as a result of the extra information. It is unusual in any given market, that a consumer is unaware and cannot know the source of the product purchased. For example, if an oil company is selling oil, it is graded and sold on an exchange, with the details of the product known. Some oil grades will command a premium over other oils.

It should be the same with food. But because of our food labelling regulations, this is not the case. It is what is known as a market “friction”.

Friction occurs in a market where the buyer – in this case, the consumer – has to make choices based on insufficient information. The gaps between information between the seller and consumer in the market lead to an inefficient transaction of goods. Meaning that products that should sell for less, may sell for more and products that should sell for more, sell for less. These are transaction costs.

This is where Friction Reduction market-based instruments, or as I prefer to call them: Information based market-based instruments become relevant.

Information based MBIs or Friction Reduction Instruments reduce the transaction costs by creating a more efficient market. These instruments might include certification, labelling, education campaigns or any number of other related schemes. Many of these schemes are voluntary, on the part of producers, in response to demand from consumers.

A classic example is “fair-trade” coffee. This resulted from ethical considerations of coffee drinkers towards the growers and workers on coffee plantations.

One might ask why if it such a good thing, that local producers don’t already label their products more specifically, or precisely. The answer is that many if not all, already do.

The efficient functioning of a market relies on the underlying regulation. In this case, Australian growers and producers have their products devalued as a result of the lack of information. Those already providing the information are having their products lowered in value by those who don’t have to accurately state the source of their products. The confusion in the labelling raises the value of imported product, and lowers the value of local product.

There is something being missed out on as a result of the lack of informative labelling. Australian food and locally sourced food fetch a premium overseas and at home. Yet, when these products are in supermarkets, the value is less.

With the explosion of local farmers markets in Australia and so on, it is obvious that there is high demand, and an expectation of locally sourced and grown product. And people don’t mind paying a premium for the assurance that that provides.

If Australia looks to increase the value of our agricultural exports, we could probably learn a thing or two about increasing the value of our domestic premium produce sales. All this would take, is a simple change on the label.

 

*This is not a medical blog, or recommended advice. Please seek other advice or treatment if concerned.

Jul 072014
 

Report WritingReport writing is an area of writing that should be expanded upon in undergraduate courses in academia. I frequently explain to my students that the majority of writing that they are likely to do in their professional careers will be report writing. Yet, universities don’t seem to value this as a skill as much as the professional world does. Report writing, and highly technical writing underpins all other writing types and formats promoted and necessitated and prioritised by universities. Even many purely research oriented journal articles are actually in a report format, so I don’t understand why it has become the black sheep of undergraduate course assessments.

Despite the importance of report writing, and the structured nature of report writing, it is the format that I find my students struggle with the most. Even mature age students who have written reports in the private sector, or for government, tend to fall apart when confronted with writing reports for an undergraduate course.

I understand that essays, critiques and analyses providing summaries and carrying arguments are important and are the backbone of undergraduate assessments. However, these can be present in reports as well. The fact that a report is structured seems to make it seem much more elementary than other writing formats. But for mine, it is the basis for presenting and demonstrating primary evidence – whether this is qualitative or quantitative.

Specificity, accuracy and succinctness are great skills developed and assisted by practice in report writing. Students who hide a lack of understanding with wordiness and vagueness tend to struggle with report writing due to the nature of what is required. Assessing report writing in an undergraduate course would encourage students to learn to focus their writing, and promote a balanced approach to argument.

Report writing is also as varied and adaptable as the other writing formats promoted in undergraduate courses. Reports can be generated for the representation of data, for the documentation of a process, or for providing recommendations and conclusions to an audience.

Being able to demonstrate ability to present primary evidence is something I would like all of my students to be able to achieve. The rise of evaluations for research programmes, community programmes, or projects undertaken by the private sector in my opinion necessitate a greater emphasis on teaching the basic parameters of report writing in greater depth.

Although I studied various science subjects, social sciences and humanities over the course over my studies, it wasn’t until I began working as a research assistant, and writing reports and evaluations for government, that I felt comfortable with writing reports. Apart from publications, I can’t remember writing anything else – which I find strange when I look at what is required in undergraduate courses.

So what do my students struggle with when writing reports?

Abstracts are the biggest problems that students face. Somewhere between an introduction and an executive summary, the abstract is hung out to dry. An executive summary is something that should be promoted as a tool to be used as an assessment piece, in and of itself, but I digress. I find that students haven’t read enough peer reviewed material to be able to write successful abstracts. Writing abstracts for students will be the subject of another post, as it is worthy of more discussion than what I can offer here.

Introductions are also problematic for many students, strangely enough. In reality, an introduction for a report should be no different to an essay or other format – just that it is structured differently. And this is where I believe reports should be used more frequently in higher education, because in the process of writing a report, students are forced to state their hypothesis or what they are attempting to prove/ disprove. The matter of factness of stating the intentions of what is being written and presented is not something that is done well by undergraduate students.

The inability to write in this way has consequences once students become involved in their own research, through further study or as a research assistant. I know that I had problems with this, and it probably took me the entire length of my thesis to realise this flaw.

The presentation of data is also something that students struggle with. It’s quite often lumped in without much thought given to it. There is often no lead in to the results presented, or context provided. Results and data are simply thrown in without much thought as to how they are to be interpreted. It’s perhaps my most common feedback in report writing assessments – that data in tables and figures must be referred to in the text of the document.

Discussions are an area where students really need a lot of guidance to be able to extend the concepts that they are analysing in their report. I don’t understand why this is so difficult for students. It’s essentially a mini essay within the report, which students should already be familiar with. However, it requires dovetailing and being tied into the investigation, experiment or other process which produces the primary evidence.

What are the opportunities for promoting report writing?

A lot is made of the technological savvy of generation y. For mine, the ability to be creative, using new technologies and data tools is an area on which this generation should actually focus. I would like to see new ways of analysis and presentation of data. Using traditional data tools and new tools alike to present and promote data in new and interesting ways. Presentation and explanation of data as a standalone assessment piece, is something I think should be promoted more explicitly in undergraduate courses.

There is a perception that report writing should be formulaic, traditional and ritualised. I think this has led to most reports going left unread and unused in the workplace. But they are an untapped resource, especially for promotional or corporate education purposes. I want to see my students playing around with different data visualisation techniques. I want to see them be able to show potential employers that they can reinterpret “boring” reports and evaluations in new and interesting ways. We live in a world which is data driven, and data is demanded by bosses and management. But we also live in a world where this data is hidden, and underutilised.

Using elements of reports as assessment items that will be required in the workforce is the area of opportunity. Students are going to demand to be provided with relevant skills to what they will require once in the workforce. I can’t think of anytime I have been asked to write an essay. But I have been asked to write evaluations, procedures and policies. All of these are potential ways to integrate report writing as an assessment task within an undergraduate degree course, which will provide long lasting value to students.

May 212014
 

StudentsFeeling useless is something I know a fair bit about. Being a philosophy major, you could say I’m an expert in uselessness. But these times are tough. In the immortal words of Kent Brockman, “Joblessness is no longer just for philosophy majors – useful people are starting to feel the pinch.” I’m going to ignore the absurdity in that sentence, but it’s really apt for now. The last week has been particularly hard on my students, following #budget2014. No doubt they feel personally insulted, aggrieved and bewildered, and as if society is rejecting them as a whole.

My students almost represent the entirety of the demographic that is under assault by our current politics: Under 30s, science students, Indigenous, mature age and single parents. But my students are fantastic people. If they weren’t, they’d be studying economics (apart from those who follow Steve Keen and the like); human resources (who have no other skill apart from liking feeling superior than everyone else); Accounting (but my students have a personality); Finance and commerce (parasites and sociopaths), or any other number of occupations that seem entitled to dictate what people do and how their value to society is measured.

All gross stereotypes aside, it is important for my students to know that they have valuable skills. These valuable skills are distinguished from those listed above. And just because the occupations ahead might tell them they have no worth to society – for employment or whatever, that they actually do have options about where to head in their future – that they are generating valuable knowledge and extremely worthwhile skills for society.

This semester, I’ve been teaching Oceanography, generally, to a group of Environmental Science students. Teaching at a small regional campus allows me to have my lectures and tutorials in a completely different format to what otherwise would be the case. And this session last Friday, I decided to do something different – aside from teaching them that a shelf is not just something that influences currents, but is also a quiet elf.

Other lecturers such as Lee Skallerup talk about the importance of caring for their students. I’ve written previously about the problems facing us as graduates after university. For mine, they are almost one and the same. I can’t care for my students without looking out for their futures, and what they require. But that doesn’t happen without knowing the drives behind my students, and my students being aware of them. This shaped my latest lecture and tute.

I was sure my students were sick of hearing that their lecturers and whatnot are negative about the budget and the government etc. So before we got started, I asked my students to get into groups of three, and discuss what brought them here – to this unit, to this course, and what about them fundamentally has led them to be doing what they are doing (none of this, it’s a mandatory unit and so on…).

I also asked them to discuss a skill that they have brought, that they can develop at university, which they can use once they leave university.

It was an interesting process. My students are really passionate about what they want, and about why they are doing what they are doing. I have students that want to change what they have done all their working lives, those that wont to make a better world for their kids. Those that want to teach science and environmental issues to students, those that love being outdoors.

What I did not expect was the blank that occurred when I asked the students how they could use their passions into the workforce. I suspect it’s the reverse in the case of the students I’ve lambasted above (no passions but an idea of how to use their skills in employment).

But the fact is, my students do have incredibly valuable skills and knowledge. Many are great with numbers. We need more mathematically inclined people in the workplace. And it really doesn’t matter how you get there. A really good friend of mine and a personal mentor as got into health research through developing skills in ecological statistics.

There are a lot of visual learners in my class. But being science students, I suspect they’re also data interested. I suggested that if this was so, to tailor their studies to GIS and the spatial sciences. You might not be working in an environmental field, but you will likely be working outdoors, with data and in a visual way.

Most of my students are people people. I suggested maybe that they consider teaching. If they’re outdoorsy types, consider youth work or support services. There are ways to use your passions like surfing to do something that is going to utilise your passions, as well as your knowledge and skills that you’ve acquired.

Just because you are doing a science, where people think you are useless, doesn’t mean you are.

We have a problem with valuing intellect and knowledge in Australia. I implored any of my students to look overseas. Go somewhere where you feel wanted, because places overseas do value your skills, your knowledge and your passions. If it wasn’t for personal circumstances, I would be heading overseas to live, myself.

It is important for my students to understand that the small minded society Australia has become, is not a reflection on themselves, or their skills. We shouldn’t be taking societal and employment advice from people who have been given a free tertiary education, only then to be taking a wage directly from the taxpayer. That’s cretinous.

We also shouldn’t be taking employment and education advice from people who measure their worth to society by the amount of tax that they pay/ or don’t pay. Because if we did, there would be no beans for the bean counters to count, no money for financiers to be parasitic of, no ideas for the idea quashers to quash, and no occupations where HR types would be able to feel more secure than.

May 142014
 

Flipping SentencesFlipping SentencesFlipping Sentences

 

Flipping SentencesFlipping SentencesFlipping SentencesFlipping sentences, reversing sentences or writing your introductory sentences as concluding sentences in a paragraph is a common problem I see with my students. Flipping sentences can also occur in the first two sentences of a paragraph. It was also a problem with my own writing before I embarked on my thesis. It wasn’t until I was given feedback by my supervisors that I realised what I was actually doing wrong. I was flipping sentences. Rather than writing good, strong topic sentences, I was hiding these within the paragraph, often as concluding sentences. Doing so leads to vague language, confused paragraphs, and all too often confusing sentences with more than one idea making an unwelcome appearance. Since then I’ve made an effort to discuss with my students how this problem presents itself, and how it can be resolved. Having this problem with my writing pointed out to me and corrected has improved the ease and proficiency of my writing no end. And I’m hoping it will improve your writing as well.

 

The Problem and Cause

Flipping sentences is a legacy from when we are taught to write. The narrative, story telling approach to writing that we develop from a young age encourages us not to write up front – to hide conclusions, to present a mystery to the reader, and only to provide a resolution after all information has been presented (in some cases at least). From this a habit of writing without telling the reader what is actually happening ahead of time, or has happened, can develop.

Academic writing is different. Academic writing demands that we state what we are saying up front. For the most part, we aren’t telling a story; we are telling a factual account or explaining a critical analysis. And it’s this element which students (and myself) have the most trouble in getting their heads around.

It’s not simply a matter of stating conclusions up front. It’s a little more of an art-form than that. And you will find the best, particularly scientific writers, are able to write their topic sentences fluidly – giving you just enough information to know what their thesis or argument is, without giving away the conclusions. But at the same time, giving you enough information to know what the paragraph will be about.

As with everything, changing a writing technique, or knowing how to employ an academic writing technique takes a lot of practice.

With most forms of errors in writing, flipping sentences are hard to self diagnose. But students will often tell me some pointers that indicate they are flipping their sentences, even before I’ve looked at their work.

 

Symptoms

A classic case is being overly reliant on quotes in the topic sentence. I tell my students that I don’t want to see references or quotes in the topic sentence, if it can be helped. There is a place for it, but not in most paragraphs.

I will often hear that students are continually concluding paragraphs with a question. Posing questions as a concluding sentence is a classic example of what is most likely a topic sentence. I don’t like seeing questions written in academic papers – they should be answered, argued and explained. The questions raised should be intuitive, and flow from one paragraph to the next. This issue of leading into another paragraph is especially if they raise a counterpoint.

Another piece of consistent feedback will be that the language is too conversational, vague or non-academic. Often, this feedback is ignored because the student doesn’t know exactly what to do with it, or about how to change it.

For me, I know when I’m flipping sentences when I get feedback such as, “repetition in consecutive sentences”. I don’t notice this myself. When I’m writing I feel as though I’m elucidating subtle differences. But what it actually is, is that I’m not clear enough, active enough and positive enough to state my topic sentence clearly. For me it leads to a lack of succinctness and accuracy in detail which is a great skill to have if you can pull it off.

When flipping sentences between the first and second sentences within a paragraph, it shows a lack of confidence in what is being said. What I have found in my own writing is that I know what it is that I should say in the topic sentence, but I lack the confidence and authority to be able to state it up front. And I notice this with my students as well. I’m often telling my students to have confidence in what they are saying. Sometimes, we should listen to our own advice.

All of these symptoms (and possibly more) are the result of flipping sentences, and can be corrected by employing the use of appropriate topic and concluding sentences.

 

Tips to Improve and Correct Flipping Sentences

As with all things, the most effective way to improve writing is to practice. But there are some ways that I have been able to correct my own writing, and the writing of my students.

It is a little more advanced than simply knowing what a paragraph structure looks like, you must be able recognise what each of the elements does. However, most students do know this and require more corrective instruction, rather than outlines and generic formulas.

The first tip is to eliminate any conjunctions in the first sentence of a paragraph. Words like and, but, or join two parts of a sentence together. In the topic sentences, these words have a tendency to create passive language, confuse the writer, the reader, and often lead to a messy paragraph. By eliminating the conjunctions in the first paragraph, the writer is likely to say what the paragraph is actually about, and then explain appropriately from there.

A tip to tackle this problem is to reformulate the topic sentence.  By reading out loud, you will begin to eliminate extraneous words, shorten sentences and write how it should be read.

If you feel it necessary to have a conjunction in the first sentence, first consider if the second topic is worthy of another paragraph, and then link them – rather than potentially messing up one clear paragraph.

Avoid vague descriptors in paragraphs, but especially in the topic sentence! Words like very, many, most, some will lead to passive language. These words can point to something important, so back it up with statistics or a reference – be forceful and active by taking out these words. If it requires further specification, move it to the second or supporting sentence and write another topic sentence introducing the topic of the statistic.

Remove references and quotes from first sentences. On occasions, using references and quotes can work in a topic sentence. But generally, as a marker, I want to see that students can explain the concept, topic or element of the work in their own words. Referencing and quoting detracts from that. When I’m under time constraints to mark and grade papers, if a student has placed quotes and references in each of their topic sentences, immediately I’m looking to place their grade in the middle of the pack.

And what to do with posing questions in an essay, especially as concluding sentences in a paragraph? There are multiple ways this issue can be tackled and corrected. The question rewritten as a solution can be used as the next paragraph’s topic sentence. The question, rewritten as a problem can be used as that paragraph’s topic sentence. And it can be stated as such. If you feel a question needs to be raised, it’s often a signal that the topic hasn’t been clearly explained, it lacks detail, or it hasn’t been fully argued.

Academic writing is a process of presenting, critiquing and arguing. Once a student is into the body of their work, questions raised should almost become intuitive to the reader. It’s fantastic when I’m reading a journal article, or book, and I think, “But what about this?” And without even posing the question, the author is able to tackle the question; the points raised or further explain. It is a hard skill to achieve, but when I see students that have been able to master this art, I do feel as if they “get it”.

I’ll write in upcoming addition about tips to produce high quality introductions. In that, I state there should be a justification for what it is that is being done. If a question is to be raised, it should be in there. Different pieces of work are different, but most undergraduate assessment pieces should follow that structure.

Answers, explanations, critiques and premises of that question are then expected to be unpacked through the assessment. If a student has a persistent problem with posing questions throughout the work, I would suggest listing these questions at the beginning of the paper, and analysing which are most beneficial to be stated there, as a way of shaping and structuring the paper.

Repetition, my own writing problem when flipping sentences, is solved by a drill that I work out. I delete the first two sentences of a paragraph that contain repetition, and I write one. Sometimes it is necessary then to rewrite the paragraph, but so be it. It makes my paragraphs more concise, succinct, to the point, active and confident. These are all things that I want to be aiming for when I write, and when I’m trying to eliminate flipping sentences.

What have you found helpful when rewriting topic sentences? What symptoms do you notice in your writing when you experience some of these symptoms? Let me know, and I’ll lend some assistance in the next writing tips post.

May 122014
 

 

PrecariatRecently I wrote about my experience in the Precariat, and it seemed to generate a lot of interest and some discussion away from the blog. It appears to speak to a narrative which is quite hard to navigate, and is fraught with racist and xenophobic undertones which threaten to hide legitimate issues requiring discussion. It just so happens that after expressing my opinion of the 457 Visa system as being a rort, and scammed by many employers, that in the last week or so, an alleged organised crime racket has been exposed for allegedly abusing 457 workers. This unfortunately for the 457 workers involved, puts them in an extremely precarious position – the worst kind of Precariat situation imaginable.

 

As I have discovered recently through some twitter debates, the issue gets quite heated, and responses to insecure work in Australia can quickly degenerate and appeal to racist elements in the community. One such representation of this is recent union advertising, pointing out that 457 workers “took our jobs” and that these jobs belong to “us”. Despite the fact that unions do help uncover 457 visa abuses, and help 457 obtain better working conditions and entitlements, this is an unwelcome response to an issue that is tricky enough to navigate as it is.

 

Language such as “us” and “them” when talking about foreign workers, immigrants and so on is inherently xenophobic. Australia has a pretty horrible history with such language and policy responses, going back to mining days in the early goldfields, Asian immigration in the north of Australia and the response with the White Australia Policy.

 

What is missing, and what was pointed out by others in the debate, is worker solidarity. In a globalised world, insecure employment is an issue impacting upon young workers almost everywhere in the developed and undeveloped world. And the response must be global. The issues facing young workers in Australia are undoubtedly faced by the workers coming to Australia on 457 visas in their own economies. But it makes no sense to create more problems in other countries – the movement of skilled labour internationally is a huge false economy and a massive cost faced by the host social systems and structures, not borne by the corporations that create them.

 

Those who were a part of the conversation that lead to this post were quite right in arguing that the correct response should be to improve the working conditions, pay rates and improved employment across the board in the host countries.

 

It is the lack of accountability on companies and businesses which leads to inappropriate employment practices and the lack of up-skilling of workers in developed countries, right around the world.

 

It is precisely because companies do not have to provide adequate pay, conditions and training that enable 457 Visa rorts. If companies were only allowed to work 457 visa holders to 40 hours a week, at the market rate of pay, the incentive to employ, train and invest in local workers is increased. In my opinion, it is only because of these factors that make 457 workers attractive to employers. For every worker on a 457, there is probably another half a full time job that they are doing, that could be done by someone else. This is not an acceptable situation. We do not have full employment and we have an alarming increase in our youth unemployment. These problems could be addressed with increased training and investment by companies.

 

The other issue is the abuse of the sponsorship and visa provisions. Unions, and I think everyone should argue that is employed on an ongoing basis should be given something akin to permanent residency. The fact that the employer holds the employees citizenship rights, is a naturally abusive power imbalance. The power imbalance is what undoubtedly leads to worker abuse and the sort of practice I explained in the previous post. I don’t think 457 workers would be prepared to lie in legal documents if they knew they could go elsewhere. As it is, employers can force 457 workers to sign documents wrongfully showing their working hours. An unwillingness to sign such a document, or to work illegal, exploitative and abusive hours is likely to see a dismissal and deportation.

 

By ensuring that all workers have appropriate rights to stay in Australia means that employers will have to ensure that they are well looked after and remunerated. I’m sure many companies who struggle to attract and retain Australian workers face their shortages because they are such poor places to work. If their 457 workforce were to be able to leave, it would ensure that their employment practices are appropriate – otherwise their shortages would continue. The 457 process hides failings within the employment practice that are unwilling to be addressed by the companies. Ironic, given the reasons many companies give to hiring foreign workers – laziness, incompetence, lack of skills etc of Australian workers.

 

Thanks to an earlier discussion, there is a way forward on this issue that can positively impact change that is not xenophobic or racist. Tactics employed by the unions in this area are counterproductive and as so often with the union movement, tarnish the good things that unions do. The focus should move to improving conditions for all workers, changing the working residency status for workers and improving employment and up skilling practices. Not only would this be better for 457 workers, but also increase the chances of Australians attaining work, and a more skilful, harmonious and loyal workforce.

May 082014
 

TurnitinTurnitin is the bane of many student’s and lecturer’s existence. But I am in the camp where Turnitin is one of the best advances in technology in academia since I became a University student. I am all for using technology to assist with writing. And used correctly, Turnitin is an extremely useful tool for improving the standard of written work. Turnitin is extremely useful as a teaching, correction and writing coaching tool. Primarily, Turnitin is a plagiarism detection tool and method for assigning marks and correcting work. However, it is most effective in its instruction and self correction abilities.

Turnitin does have its flaws which do irritate students and those marking – the classic being the assignment cover sheet reading as a plagiarised section. The similarity report (the overall “plagiarism” percentage) will also depend upon the order in which the assessment was submitted. Students submitting their work last will read higher in their similarity index as references and so on will be found as a false positive in colluding work between students.

What is more important than these overall numbers is the way in which these statistics appear within the student’s assignment. If a quote is not properly referenced, it will be picked up and highlighted by Turnitin. Incorrect paraphrasing will also be picked up by Turnitin. And it is this feature that highlights incorrectly paraphrased and quoted material, which is the best use of the Turnitin technology. It is the easiest and most effective way for improving a student’s writing standards.

Paraphrasing is a notoriously hard skill to teach and for students to master. Using Turnitin, it is the first thing I look for when assessing a student’s work. It is the easiest way for me to decide whether a student has fully grasped and understood the concepts and context at hand. How Turnitin highlights sentences within the document shows me whether or not a student is able to use their own voice in relation to the topic and questions at hand.

Turnitin makes it easy for a marker to identify consistent faults in paraphrasing, referencing and quoting work in the assignment. Once you have identified consistencies in the problems, it is simple to provide quick, effective feedback that is instructive to the student, and will have a lasting impact on their future submissions. The feedback is not vague or general – it is tangible. The student is able to see the highlighted portion, and the marker’s feedback in relation to it.

That is the instructional use and value of Turnitin. Students can also get value in learning to self correct work before the submit it. Turnitin is a great tool for students to use to check first drafts before submission. My advice to students is to submit their draft to Turnitin before the due date (Turnitin allows multiple submissions before the due date) to make basic error corrections, to check for referencing errors and to make sure paraphrasing mistakes have not been made. These will show up to students as they would for the markers, allowing the student to correct and change incorrectly paraphrased sentences.

The visual nature of the feedback given by Turnitin also assists students in understanding when they are relying too heavily on quotes, or on one particular source. If they are continually quoting from one author or source, the colours will show up in their work as similar. This is a great way of being able to evaluate one’s own work when submitting. You can quickly assess whether there is a good spread of references, or if you are relying for your argument on only one or few sources.

Turnitin has become so valuable for my students and my own marking that I’ve actually begun to use it to alter, edit and revise some of my own work. Not only is it useful for the student and lecturer/ marker, but I think it also provides potential value for the academic and author. Often when you are reading on one topic, referencing can become sloppy and paraphrasing problematic. Turnitin offers a way to deal with this before any unintended surprises through innocent mistakes. As technology improves and no doubt journals begin to use basic electronic scanning software to pick up mistakes, I think it is probably wise to use software and programmes like Turnitin to help analyse first drafts and pick up basic mistakes that might otherwise be missed.

As an experiment I decided to put a draft of the main chapter in my thesis through the Turnitin check (you can see this in the image for this article). Surprisingly, it did very well. I was actually expecting it to pick up my thesis somewhere on the internet, but it did not. It came out at 22% similar, a little high for my liking. However, this is largely due to it picking up a rather large reference list. Some 122 sources were identified, with five at 1% and the rest at <1%. And that is more important than the overall figure. Scanning the document reveals to me that the five sources at 1% are due to the same direct quotes being picked up in other assessments around the world. I am happy with this. There are no paraphrasing mistakes and no one source is standing out to me as overused.

Plagiarism prevention, marking and assessment organisation is really the backbone of the Turnitin software. But, it is actually most effective when used in conjunction with instructional and coaching assistance. The marker is able to focus on a student’s consistent errors in structure, referencing and paraphrasing mistakes. But the student also gets a visual representation and visual feedback that can be used in conjunction with assessment feedback, in order to self correct and improve writing into the future. I am convinced that software like Turnitin can also be effectively used for improving the standard and reduce the risk of potential problems for academics and researchers alike.

Apr 232014
 

Tess Lea’s Darwin is an approachable cultural critique and explanation of Darwin’s history and present. Entwined in the Darwin narrative is Lea’s own cultural heritage and with it, some of the ‘frontier’ history of the Northern Territory.

Maintaining the intellectual complexity of many of her previous works, Darwin is the most accessible of her publications to date, retaining the charm of depth and pointedness which are so apparent in her more academic works but freighting theory within narratives and old fashioned yarns. To me, it seemed the first third of the book was hardest to write, in the fashion it often is when something is clearly close to your heart. But the second half opens up into an easily readable and entertaining if challenging exposition of Darwin which will inform and be of interest to both who know Darwin and those to whom it remains an unknown place.

While it claims to be focussed on Darwin since the Second World War, Lea weaves the narrative of selected histories of Darwin to give context and justification and an explanatory power for current events and issues in Darwin. Sometimes challenging, sometimes apologetic, it is an honest appraisal of Darwin’s culture and its distinctiveness on the Australian continent.

Darwin demonstrates the indelible mark that immigration and racial conflict has had on Darwin, and the sometimes paradoxical relationships between racial groups that confound intruders or other Australians coming to live in Darwin. Yet, although this a major theme that Lea extracts from the many contributors she spoke to for the work, it is perhaps not followed through as much as it could be in certain parts.

Darwin is an incredibly metropolitan city, which is surprising to a lot of visitors and those who have not visited Darwin. With this comes the physical characteristics of multiple cultures. It also dominates the politics of space in Darwin, a fact of policing and racial confrontations which is alluded to but not fully expressed. A shame given this is a part of Lea’s own academic work.

What is expressed and emphasised is the “social amnesia” and “numbed indifference” which runs as a consistent line from foundation to the present day in Darwin and the Northern Territory. Such a social and cultural phenomenon is one anecdotal reason given for the flux and constant movement of the Darwin population. Priests, nurses, teachers, doctors and others working on the frontline of social problems in Darwin are frequently cited in the local rag, the NT News, as fleeing Darwin for various reasons such as burnout. But as Darwin residents are likely to already know, this is more of a code word for combat fatigue. Those who stay learn to deal with the myriad of social problems in a number of ways, which weaves a path through the history of Darwin, as it does in Lea’s book.

Military build up is a constant point of discussion in Darwin, and is a feature in the book. The perceived necessity of the military, the history of Darwin as a military town, and the current and future decisions in relation to the military provide the sign posts for an analysis of the wider numbed indifference and social amnesia that abounds in Darwin. The inevitable cases of sexual assault and aggression are presented as a narrative for the possible future of the city, as it has marked the recent past, given the way Darwin features one of the highest sexual assault rates against women in the country. Against this, the economic case for military expansion  and reliance of the Darwin economy on the military – provide the basis of the kind of bind that so many polarising policy issues in Darwin also encounter.

The bind that Darwin faces itself – between the military and the negative consequences and the inevitability and helplessness of Darwin is almost a metaphor for how Darwin and the Northern Territory views itself: somehow fiercely independent, different, unique and set aside from the rest of Australia – yet wholly dependent on the outside for its sustenance, continuance and direction in almost all areas.

The duality of Darwin, between opposing policy options, and opposing social groups is a feature of many of the stories explored in the book. In some of these stories there are examples of mutual understandings, and truces, particularly between kids. I am left wondering if this is somehow an epithet for potential future ways forward in Darwin’s social sphere.

There is much that is missed in this book, particularly in regard to the sporting organisation of Darwin, and with it, the Northern Territory. Australian Rules Football has shaped Darwin both physically and socially. However, in this work only the socio-political aspects of AFL are brushed upon. The fact that the Esplanade – as Lea notes, Darwin’s only public space in the CBD – was once reserved for and had Football played there, is I think quite an important historic and cultural point. The entire geography and cultural history of the city is shaped by Football.

With this, the other important cultural point is the football season itself. Once played exclusively in the ‘Dry’ season in indigenous communities, football has gradually been moved to the ‘Wet’ season. Indigenous communities once only played Football in the Dry season – and some still do. As Lea does note, the change of Aussie Rules Football to the Wet season could be seen as another case of organised sport (by whitefellas) asserting power over unorganised sport (by blackfellas), and inserting a colonial sport in cricket (amongst others), in its place.

It could equally be argued that Football is one of the few sports that could be played in the Wet season, and thus, it allows other sport and recreation activities – so much loved by Territorians – to be enjoyed to their maximum extent.

Despite the various interpretations that the history of football in Darwin might elicit, it does give rise to one of the most elegant descriptions of Australian Rules Football in the Northern Territory, or anywhere as a matter of fact:

The season starts in the build-up, before the monsoon breaks, when the air is so saturated with moisture, the body’s own secretions give no relief at all. Under the football guernsey, the body glows. Tiny beads of sweat form miniature bubble-wraps on the forehead, above the lip, below the eyelashes, on the sternum, between legs and toes. […] But everyone sweats, the heat remaining the great equaliser. The game rewards agility, sprightliness, accuracy, the ability to catch a ball on the tip of a finger. It’s the guy who scrambles up the back of another, arms outstretched, snatching the ball out of air; the player who spins the ball end over end, high and long, the crowd’s breath held… it’s there.

Of course, football is just one of the many confounding elements of Darwin; one of the many paradoxes that could be interpreted multiple ways. There are decisions and actions in the social-political sphere that appear to have good intentions, but lead to unintended consequences, or look retrospectively like harsh and inappropriate decisions and actions.

Darwin largely sets aside the role of social pressures and sports as a planning instrument in shaping Darwin – rather the physical elements of tidal marshes, mosquitoes, drainage and political/ bureaucratic decisions such as military acquisition of land – are given the predominant weighting. And with this, the social distinctions are analysed through the placement of and contents of suburbs adjacent to these areas.

The physical distinctions are apparent to the keen observer in Darwin. And this exposition is one of the strengths of the book. The history of the division in social advantage and disadvantage is made apparent for the reader. What may appear to be a perfectly legitimate place for development in southern Australia, becomes a cesspool of festering disease and sickness. The battle lines are drawn, the community splits like tectonic plates that can’t be seen by the untrained observer, and Darwin is a place where nothing is as it seems – or should seem. But such is Darwin, and such is Darwin.

It is a book people should read, not just to find out about Darwin, but to think on the policy issues that are being worked out in this still-frontier town, on Australia’s behalf. Darwin, and Darwin, is good to think with.

 

Apr 162014
 

Market Based InstrumentsIn a previous post I explained that the Carbon Price is not a Carbon Tax. That it was an Effluent Charge with a Tax Differential component. Regardless of this, they are all examples of Market Based Instruments. What they are is actually known as Price Based Market Based Instruments or just Price Based Instruments. There are generally three kinds of Market Based Instruments: Price Based Instruments, Quantity Based Instruments (or Rights Based Instruments) and Information Based Instruments.

You may have heard the Minister for the Environment explain that they will replace the “Carbon Tax” with a market based mechanism, insinuating that the Carbon Price is not a market based instrument. He is quite wrong; my master’s thesis was entitled ‘Market Based Instruments for Reducing Pollution Loads Entering Darwin Harbour’ and I will explain in basic terms what these actually are.

Price Based Instruments

Market based instruments that set a price, a charge or a fixed unit cost are known as Price Based Instruments. As previously discussed, Price Based Instruments might include policy mechanisms and instruments such as effluent charges and taxes. But they may also include:

Full Cost Pricing (and include different pricing structures)

Tax Rebates and Tax Differentiation

Insurance Premium Charges

Reverse Deposit Schemes (Container Deposit Schemes)

Subsidies, Rebates and Grants

User Charges

Performance Bonds

Covenants

These are what is known as Pigouvian Taxes. And I think the term Pigouvian Tax is where a lot of the confusion has entered the debate. However, all this term means is that the polluter absorbs the full cost of the production (or consumption) process. How this is done most efficiently and effectively is to be determined by the policy maker, and will be the subject of a later post. How price based instruments act as a market based instrument will also be discussed at a later stage, because it isn’t necessarily intuitively apparent – which is partly the problem that gives rise to comments and purchase in the population that pricing is not a market mechanism.

Quantity and Rights-Based Instruments

Quantity and rights-based Market Based Instruments are what most people think about when they think of ‘Market Based Instruments’. There really only a few types of instruments in this category and it is probably the narrowest policy set for Market Based Instruments. There really are only two types of Market Based Instruments in this category:

Cap and Trade Schemes, Permits and Tradeable Permits

Total Maximum Daily Load Schemes (including accounting and budgeting schemes)

These Market Based Instruments contain a strong regulatory basis as well as frequent market transactions. Offsets can be created and in this sense they operate both as a futures exchange and also a quasi options exchange, with regulatory bodies acting as market-makers. The exchange’s effectiveness is successful or not successful depending on the interaction of these elements.

Theoretically, such Market Based Instruments are most suited to environmental policies where there are a large number of diffuse polluters, and the impacts of pollution are not isolated. That is, a reduction in pollution in one area will benefit the whole, not just the local environment. I will discuss this dynamic at a later date. But in short, it is why Australia’s carbon pollution reduction policies have favoured a cap and trade scheme.

Information-Based Market Based Instruments

Information based Market Based Instruments are also known in the literature as Friction Reduction Schemes, or Friction Reduction Market Based Instruments.

You may ask why these are included as Market Based Instruments. The simple answer is that markets function on the basis of information. There are two things that move a market – noise, and information. Companies listed on stock exchanges are regularly releasing information. It is a legal requirement. There is legal recourse for some buyers when they have been sold something under false pretences in many different kinds of transactions.

These Market Based Instruments are said to reduce friction because they are designed to provide the user or the transacting parties with the available information. Available information is an important component of rational choice making in decision theory in classical economics, and I have some level of qualms with this philosophical position. But for the purposes of policy making, it is at least a worthy aspiring goal for policy.

Information based Market Based Instruments include:

Right to Know legislation

Eco-labelling

Public Information Campaigns

Accreditation

Summary

I hope that I have had some success in helping shed light on what actually Market Based Instruments actually are in environmental policy. There is a broad range of policy options at the hands of decision makers. The pros and cons of each and in what circumstances each market based instrument is likely to be effective will be discussed over time in this blog. But don’t be fooled by politicians and their use of jargon when discussing Market Based Instruments and the underlying philosophy for addressing environmental problems.

If you have any questions or queries, leave a comment, or suggestion. Or if you want me to go over anything in detail, let me know!

Apr 162014
 

PrecariatA few weeks ago whilst driving down to Yallingup for a field trip with my Oceanography students, I was amazed by and at the same time greatly irritated by Radio National’s Life Matter Program ‘What Did You Do With Your Degree’. Being a member of the Precariat, it repeated many of the rubbish, meaningless and glib phrases that I’ve heard all of my life about education.

It latched onto the now common debate about whether university degrees are still worth doing. And the answer from those working for Universities was a resounding, “yes”. The problem of graduates finding it hard to gain employment is still all someone else’s problem. It was an extraordinarily self serving debate and got me more than a little riled up.

Following your passions, your interests etc is still the mantra of university marketers. Well, passions don’t pay your bills. And unless you have wealthy parents, your passions aren’t going to save you from poverty if you’re overqualified with useless skills and an education that makes you overqualified for everything you try to apply for.

The debate conveniently ignored many of the factors that impact upon recent graduates and those of my generation. Or the hosts blithely glided over them and put them in the same basket as the “casualisation” of entry level jobs.

I am without a doubt a card carrying member of our generation known as the Precariat. Since graduating in 2009, I’ve had one interview. Since completing my Master of Science last year, I’ve had none.

I exist on using personal contacts (none of which have been developed from study) and casual insecure contracts. Although I have a good work history, I probably live in borderline poverty from time to time, and without family I would already be homeless.

But recently (and it took me a long time to realise this), is that of course we are producing too many university graduates. That much is obvious, despite the answers given by the panellists. But this is a function of a society that is task focussed, vocationally focussed and exceptionally removed from a world of self critique and self examination, cohesion and social betterment.

The real discussion, which wasn’t overtly set out was why we might want to have a society where we have a lot of graduates that are performing valuable roles in society. And this is the argument that needs to be made and needs to be carried if employers are actually going to take on more local graduates.

There is an implicit message sent with Australia’s policy settings regarding graduates, immigrants and skilled workers. In my field, I have to compete with workers on 457 visas, who have already been trained elsewhere, and are cherry picked by companies who don’t want to have to invest the minimum investment required to skill me in what I need to do. Despite the fact that I have valuable skills and knowledge that I deliberately targeted because of what I thought would be desired (if you want to hire me, get in touch by the way).

It’s also the case that 457 workers are working illegal hours, and then signing legal documents to say that they aren’t working those illegal hours – knowing full well if they don’t do those hours or sign the documents, their 457 sponsorship will be jeopardised. It is really another example of a disadvantage that local workers are facing.

I have friends who have graduated in Nursing; a skill in high demand, as we are frequently told. But they have not been able to secure any ongoing employment apart from casual, agency type work. Yet, we are still employing nurses on 457 visas. It does not make any sense. Unless there is an implied assumption that our own graduates are not up to standard.

The real issue is what we do with so many graduates facing insecure or few job prospects, whilst competing with policy that is actively working against them.

But it is not just policy that is working against graduates and members of the Precariat. HR departments and HR workers have become notorious and synonymous with misunderstanding the skills that graduates have. They are themselves a parody of what employment and education in Australia has become.

However, this is not exclusively the fault of those in the HR industry. Given that many companies are completely outsourcing their recruitment functions, HR consultants are constrained by the types of employees they are willing to recommend for positions. Gone are the days where employers would understand the translatable nature of the skills that people have in different positions. Instead, many skills are frowned upon.

I myself have had this happen with one HR consultant. After looking at my resume, he informed me that he didn’t have any work going in the education field. Well, if you’re in HR and think that I’m in education because I work for a university and not in education because I have specific skills and knowledge related to particular fields of expertise, then it is a problem.

Or an argument I had with one who concluded that academics and those in Higher Ed were completely unaccountable for the public funding they received. I had to remind her that she did not have to gain ethics approval to do her job, nor have to acquit her funding on the basis of performance or outcomes. Nor was a failure to understand what constituted accountability by way of production of research and inability to cognise academic production the fault of the academic, but a symptom of the problem of HR types and their interaction with the Higher Ed sector.

And don’t get me started on HR in Higher Ed! Often the most obstructive and counterproductive people in Universities to research production and outcomes within the University!

But it is a problem partly of the making of Universities and the higher education sector as well. Those working in HR are “skilled”, rather than “educated” and really probably don’t have enough grounding in alternative fields to understand what particular potential workers can bring to a workplace. It’s all well and good to say that architects and arts graduates can work in banks advising on different scenarios (as the radio programme did), but if you have a HR department that doesn’t understand different attributes, then it is a pointless discussion.

I could go on for hours and hours about my frustrations with employment following graduation, about the lack of understanding of my generation’s skills; the precariousness of employment that my Dad’s generation simply does not understand. I guess the important thing to take out of this is that the problem is known. What we need to do is actually talk about the problem that exists. It isn’t going to be helped by increasing student enrolments, which is what one of the pushes is on for. Nor do we need 457 visa workers in a lot of the areas we have them. Employers and those in the HR have to be more aware of the skills that are actually out there – and be prepared to train people up. Unlike previous generations it is not something that is being provided for my Precariat generation.

Apr 152014
 

2 Apps For Helping You WritePreviously I have explained the importance of routine to help with productivity for improving your writing output. In this post, I’m going to introduce you to 2 Apps for Helping You Write.

Both Apps are free, and both apps I use as a way of utilising the pomodoro technique. The pomodoro technique is popular amongst the #acwri crowd and you’ll find this pop up quite a bit during the #acwrimo and #nanomo.

The pomodoro technique works by excluding other activities whilst you are focussed on one. Usually, this period of time is a period of 30 minutes. At the end of the 30 minutes you can then take a break – read that text message, respond to that email, go for a walk or grab another coffee.

It is a technique that is now a part of my morning routine. I find it maximises the most productive time of my day. And you should do the same with these 2 Apps for Helping You Write.

My Minutes2 Apps For Helping You Write

My Minutes is a scheduling and timer app combined into one. I used My Minutes to great benefit when writing my thesis. It ensured that I wrote for a minimum of 30 minutes each day, and edited/ revised for 30 minutes during my lunch break. It also gave me a tracking of how I had gone over the last week towards achieving my goals. My Minutes displays red circles for an unachieved daily goal and a green circle for an achieved goal. Each circle represents a day of the week, so you can get a visual representation of what you might have been avoiding during the week, or what you might need to concentrate on for the remainder of the week.

You can also set up a daily reminder to tell you how many tasks you have on a given day. As you can see, I’ve been pretty slack. But thanks to this app, I don’t actually need it anymore because it has become habitual for me to have a routine. I had it set up for my daily knee rehabilitation exercises after having an arthroscope last year. So it isn’t just useful for writing, but anything that requires a time based routine.

Perhaps you want to stretch or do another pre-writing activity that you find helpful? This is one of the perfect 2 Apps for Helping You Write.

@Timer

Since using My Minutes and using time based routine techniques, I now need less of that app. Now I use @Timer and prioritise my daily tasks on a day to day basis.

2 Apps For Helping You WriteI use @Timer for my daily reading and editing/ revision tasks to keep me on track. I also use it for when I have completed my daily tasks and am studying my Spanish. It keeps me from doing too much of one thing and not moving onto the next task whilst I have the time. As with My minutes, such a simple thing as a timer can keep you focused on one thing at a time, without being distracted. It also gives you a simple goal.

Of course, you don’t need an app if you are disciplined and just want to set a stop watch or keep an eye on the time or what have you. But the technology is there for you to use, so why not make it work for you? If you are struggling to write, it can also contain that without giving you the awful feeling like you’ve sat down to write and achieved nothing all day. It helps to contain that feeling of uselessness which can blow up your writing if you are not careful.

Technology has many potential uses, especially as a procrastination tool. Many apps seem destined to interrupt with your writing and daily tasks. These 2 Apps for Helping You Write will hopefully improve your writing productivity and increase your output. I’m sure there are many others that people find helpful, but these are two that I’ve found helpful in my own work.

Are there any other apps that you have found that help you write? If there are, let me know below and I will check them out.